The rock-bottom of Law and Order is the transcendent value of an objective criterion for being of human origin, which presumes its ethical and legal personhood. The Spanish Jesuit, Francisco Suarez (1617) believed that the ground and aim of Law itself is ‘the due preservation and natural perfection or happiness of human nature’, from which he derives his theory of rights; which was endorsed by Jefferson (1743) in his ‘three inalienable rights to Life, to Liberty and to the Pursuit of happiness. Although there is an implicit priority of the right to self-preservation of human nature,there is no explicit priority given to life over liberty and liberty over happiness and property.
‘So why do philosophers, scientists and people of common sense assert that human beings have such a special value?’ continues R. Spitzer, S.J. in his book: ‘Ten Universal Principles‘. His answer lies in the interrelated observations in the works of many philosophers and scientists, beginning with Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. He then quotes St. Augustine, Maimonides, Averroes, St. Thomas Aquinas, Francisco Suarez, John Locke, Immanuel Kant G. Hegel J. Newman, and in recent times Husserl, Stein, Maritain, Bergson, Lonergan.
Spitzer’s references to scientists includes a quote from Arthur Eddington: ‘We all know that there are regions of the human spirit untrammeled by the world of physics. In the mystic sense of the creation around us, in the expression of art, in a yearning towards God, the soul grows upward and finds the fulfillment of something implanted in its nature’.
1. The Categories of Law
2. The Nature of Law
3. The Categories of Order
4. The Nature of Order
5. The Nature of Disorder
1. THE CATEGORIES OF LAW
a)What is a Law? Philosophy posits: Fundamentally, law is an ordinance of reason, promulgated by an authority for the creation of order. The human mind recognises through reason the existence of two ‘universal laws’, called the Eternal Law and the Natural Law.
The first ‘Law of laws’ is the Eternal Law, which is nothing other than our Christian belief in that law has a supreme Authority given by our Creator, the divine Lawmaker, over all other laws in the Universe. This supremacy therefore applies equally to the Natural Law.
The second law is the Natural Law; having its same universal basis in the Eternal Law, for the operation of all laws and forces of the physical reality, as well as encompassing all our Moral Laws.
Therefore, it also carries the same divine authority for the maintenance of lawful rights and duties, the basis of all Moral Law, as well as the basis for most of human-made laws, such as the private and public law, family and state law, civil and criminal law; etc.
Philosophy asserts that where there is order, there must also be a law. Furthermore, reason dictates, firstly, that there must be a set of intelligible ‘instructions’ written into physical nature, (similar to DNA), as well as in the human mind, (similar to conscience), so that we could understand how physical things work and how human beings should act.
Secondly, logic dictates that there must be for any law a competent designer and/or an authentic lawgiver.
2. THE NATURE OF LAW
Regarding the fact that both, Eternal Law and Natural Law apply universally, for which reason they called universal Laws; we can still make a clear distinction between the two.
Eternal Law is founded in our religious belief, in that the Creator is the ultimate source of and the sole Authority over all categories of law.
Natural Law on the other hand, guarantees on the same bases of divine Authority that the physical Universe will exist and functions in the physical order according to the divine plan; this belief includes the conscience-based, knowable moral law.
The one major similarity between the two sets of universal laws appears, that first, in the case of physical nature, the essence, function and purpose are all ‘built into’ every entity and event by the laws and forces of nature. Second, the concepts of transcendental rights and duties ‘instilled into’ the human conscience, through the innate concepts of right and wrong, and which are recognisable by the reasoning human mind.
The above statements become clear from the magnificent achievements of science and technology, and through our understanding the supremacy of moral order in all our actions. Otherwise, without the existence and intelligibility of these two universal laws, human beings simply could not exist to achieve their final end, the ultimate purpose of creation.
a) The Basis of Rights: Regarding the basis of ‘rights’, Thomas Aquinas distinguishes between natural and positive or civil right; saying that: ‘Whatever natural reason decrees among all men, and is observed by all equally, that equates to positive right, and thus makes positive law the immediate basis of rights. In addition, since positive laws are, through ‘natural reason,’ based on the Natural Law, i.e., the way things were made by the Creator, the ultimate foundation for all types of rights, just as for moral laws, is the Eternal Law, which is hence, truly a Law above the law’.
Philosophy comments that the normal grasp of Natural Law is effected by reason, i.e. by the reasoning of an adequate mind; in this context reason is sometimes called the ‘conscience. The moral law guides all our actions towards their final end of achieving the desired ‘good’; hence, it is called also the Eternal Law, because it makes us become aware of a universal, law-like order of things; whose maintenance is believed to be ultimately our basic norm of morality.
b) The Nature of Rights and Duties: As mentioned earlier, both right and duty are based in the Natural Law, which emanates from the Eternal Law. Therefore, Eternal Law constitutes the ultimate, authoritative basis for almost all of our natural and moral rights and duties, through the civil laws and by the dictates of our conscience. These duties aiming at providing, respecting and protecting of all human and animal lives, children, disabled, the poor, and the animals; etc.
Many of our rights based on Human Rights, i.e., there is no other right more fundamental than the right to life; the right to personal freedom and safety, right to freedom of thought, and to freedom of speech, to freedom of action and freedom of holding property, freedom of religion, right to establishing families and associations, and a right to work within reasonable working conditions, such as for a just family wage; etc.
One of our more important wrights is the ‘Freedom of thought and freedom of speech’. Freedom of speech is for everyone, without exception, i.e. all speech is assumed legal, provided it is backed up with an equal duty for its trustworthiness and individual accountability. The intrinsic values of ‘free speech’ are its power for the powerless minorities, and it is the universal hallmark of individual dignity.
(i) While having discussed the philosophical aspects of right and duty, it is important to consider their aspects in the physical reality as well. While we all know that civilised human existence is unimaginable without either the existence of rights to us or duties to others, an yet, we still do not understand the one single principle underlying these concepts in the reality.
The principle is that nothing is ours by right; in other words, we do not own the right to anything we possess. Whatever we posses is either gift by nature , such as life that we received from an other life, or gift to us by others; or we earned from others by our physical and mental skills , which were again given to us either by nature or by others. One may ask, ultimately, what made all these physical sequences possible, and where did they come from? The only sensible answer can be the Eternal Law, the basis and the Law of all laws in the physical Universe. I believe this principle describes our true standing in the physical reality, we see ourselves just as we were born, with possessing nothing; hence, there is nothing to be arrogant about, nor having reason to have a false pride. Finally, this principle sets the true basis of all philosophical, physical and Christian morality.
Simone Weil has a still deeper explanation about the basis of right and duty, but from a different point of view:
It is in our logically fallacious assumption that for every claim of our right, be it based on demand or on moral, legal right, there must also exist a reciprocally compelling duty on others to comply.Consequently, any claim for a right is meaningless in itself, without the existence of an equal duty on the part of others to satisfy that claim. In other words, the validity of every right depends on the validity of a commensurate duty.
(ii) The following are some of the interpretations of rights: In spite of the previous generalisations about the universal moral rights and duties, reality demonstrates the need for further distinction between Eternal Law and Natural Law. In the case of Eternal Law, the claimer, (such as, e.g., an unborn child or a baby), has a moral right to a claim on others, who are compelled by their conscience, and as their moral duty to satisfy the right to that claim.
In the case of Natural Law, however, the state law that governs the rights and duties of a society’s lawful interests, has the lawful right to adjudicate every claim in accordance with its individual circumstance; (e.g., one may rightfully submits a false claim, as a civil right, to ‘form a society’ for the overthrow of a legally elected government.)
Although both types of moral and civil claims, have their common basis in Natural Law, they should not be applied together, because in that case, the rights and duties could easily conflict; and according to Aristotle: ‘Responsibility divided, responsibility denied’.
c) The Inestimable Value of Moral Law: The above sections have already explained partially the principal role of moral law in a human society. The general nature of Moral Law is that it promotes peace, order and justice, whereby they maintain our human dignity. Without moral law, the might would have the right for mutual exploitation and oppression, and there would be no more reason for a Universal Law, upon which all human rights and duties were based.
3. THE CATEGORIES OF ORDER
a) Introduction: The previous articles on this Website offered the reader a panoramic view of the essential elements, the quasi- building blocks of an imaginary ‘edifice’, that is our orderly physical Universe. Then, we have glimpsed at the enigmatic transformation from the one extreme of lifeless state of physical matter to the other extreme state, the life-carrying, self-conscious human being, who seeks to know and understand through reason, the order in its mind as well as the order in the physical reality around it. We will analyse further in this Section the philosophical aspects of this magnificent order of the human mind and its physical surround; we will also consider the general absence of order in the mind and in the physical reality, all in the following three major steps:-
First, the Eternal Law maintains the universal order in the physical reality ever since its beginning, 13.75 billion years ago. The Natural Law intends to provide the authoritative basis for maintaining moral order among human beings.
Second, we understood that the physical order of the Universe had initially embedded in itself the seeds of an energy-based ‘disorder’ that maintains over the eons a gradual and irreversible degradation and the eventual self-destruction of the entire Universe. The cause of this gradual disorder is the Law of Entropy, which ensures the finite nature of the physical order in the Universe; (more about it later in this article).
Third, we will consider the relatively recent phenomenon, that is: It appears that parallel with this slowly evolving, physical disorder, a transcendental moral disorder is also developing, that could similarly threaten the long-term, human survival. The principal cause of this perceived moral disorder appears to be a worldwide human disdain with absolute ideas; (more about it later in this article.)
b) The Categories of Order: We introduce here the five major types of order in nature, which will be described later in more detail; the following are the major types of order:-
The logical order that constitutes the essence of being human, that is the mind can reason things out; without it we would be unable to understand one another or the world around us. The basis for all transcendental activities of human mind is guided by the Eternal Law.
The physical order is a universal order for maintaining in existence of matter and energy by the universal laws and forces of nature, without which there would be no matter and energy, nor could any universe exist. The universal physical order is maintained by the multitude of Laws and Forces of Nature.
The biological order is also a universal order for the functioning of the DNA, for the maintenance and propagation of all living beings, without which biological life as we know could not exist. This order is based on and guided by the Natural Law.
The moral order has its basis in the Eternal Law, and the moral order is the result of our adherence to the belief-based Moral Law, which law guides the human thoughts and behaviour. The final arbiter for compliance with the Moral Law is the properly informed individual conscience. The Moral Law is based ultimately in the Natural Law.
The social order is the result of the legally established civil and criminal law, which is closely linked with the socially established moral order. All social laws are based ultimately in the Natural Law.
4. THE NATURE OF ORDER
The Nature of Transcendental Order: Philosophy explains the nature of order in great detail, but putting it simply is the following: Order is the being of a coherence and logical interrelation of existing and probable entities and events in the physical and abstract realities, through a verifiable truth, whose ultimate basis found in the physical reality.
The concept of order instituted within the innate logic of the human mind, which searches in everything for reason and order, as these are the conditions for understanding of ‘why‘ things happen in the reality. Consequently, the concept of order equates with the concept of truth, insofar as both must have their basis in the physical reality.
Furthermore, philosophy asserts that whatever is orderly, it is reasonable and ‘true’; and it also satisfies both, the aesthetic values of the mind and often even the senses. It is therefore, like a magnet, drawing human beings from eons on towards whatever demonstrates through its order of beauty and simplicity, any of its true or mirage-like manifestation.
Just as we cannot rest without a reasonable explanation to, or a deeper understanding of the concept of order, we are equally restless until the possession of it. Our entire endeavour in sciences, arts and sports alike, is motivated to achieve the utmost, as per the Olympic slogan of ‘Citius, Altius, Fortius, (Faster, Higher, Stronger,) in everything.
Human life therefore, has its final purpose set by the similarly unquenchable search for the ultimate, the quintessential order and truth and beauty in our Creator. The following will describe in detail the major varieties of order:-
a) The Order of the Mind: Aristotle states that there is nothing more profound in the life of an intellect than the innate desire to know the reason for existence of everything. The human mind cannot help but to search for the truth in everything, while trying to understand reality.
This innate drive emanates from the transcendental order within the mind. Furthermore, philosophy repeats that the primary subject of our reasoning is to identify and understand the order of things, because without it, the mind could not make any sense why things happen as they do, and what is the truth of entities and events in the physical reality.
The peculiarity of order within the mind implies two things, first, the origin of all order (as per Socrates), is somehow ‘mind’, which we do not make but only consider. Second, we can make order out of the reality as well, which order designed and structured according to the order of our mind.
There is yet an other, two-fold order that derives from the above consideration, that is, there are many ‘systematic’ order (multitude) of physical entities and events we discover around us, but which order we did not make; such is the physical order of the Universe. The other type of order is the (single), final purpose of, i.e., ‘in order for…’. The answer to this provides the reason for existence in nature of all transcendental and physical entities and events.
b) The Physical Order: Aristotle suggests that there is an innate correlation between the transcendental human mind and physical reality. The secret of this relation may lie deep within our concept of ‘order’ that transcends physical reality. We can observe that there is an abundance of intelligible, ‘…innate order’ of physical entities and events in nature, and that even if some happen randomly, but not all…’, as Thomas Aquinas points to the inescapable axiom that, ‘…since those entities and events cannot be the cause of their own internal order, therefore there must be a metaphysical order outside them’.
Aquinas observed also, that ‘….it seems odd that the Universe would just be floating there without any relation to an intelligible order within it, that could indicate why it is as it is.’ We find physical order from the smallest, (that is the sub-atomic particles, which comprise the essence of matter), to the greatest of entities in the macrocosm (the planets, stars and galaxies), which epitomise the much popularised, orderly complexities of the vast physical Universe.
The one simple and characteristic example for the physical order in the Universe is how stars born and maintain their size for a seemingly end-less life: Stars born by the accretion of inter-galactic gas and dust, but mostly hydrogen gas. This initial stage is the effect of electromagnetic forces on the minor particles. Once these particles agglomerate to larger dimensions, the force of gravity takes over and holds these enormous masses of gas and other material in an infant star, together.
The inward pressure caused by the force of gravity gradually increasing, in proportion with the increasing mass of the spinning star. The pressure and heat thus generated becomes ultimately so enormous that it triggers nuclear fusion reaction within the core of the young star; and finally, a new star is born.
The nuclei of atoms fuse together in this process, and releasing the radiant heat and light of a typical star, (like our Sun), that may be felt for unimaginable distances in the Universe, and for about 10 billion years in the lifetime of a typical star.
Finally, Christian reasoning suggests that the basis for our understanding of a logical and universal order in the physical reality could lie in the acceptance of a metaphysical ‘creation’ juxtaposed with the basic principles of the Darwinian ‘evolution‘.
c) The Biological Order: Embedded within the physical order of nature, there is an other order, whose origin not even science can fathom, it is the biological order, with its complexity of life. Inside each and every living being lies a ‘message‘, carrying instructions on how they are made. This message is written in atoms, arranged in an elaborate sequence to form the famous double-helix strands of DNA, the most extraordinary molecule on Earth. Human beings share this magic molecule with all plants and animals all the way down to bacteria and fungi. The DNA is a genetic databank, wherein lies the secret of biological reproduction that follows the ‘script’ of life, the ‘message‘, that points inevitably to a messenger.
Scientific findings confirm that human beings are more complex and orderly than even the galaxies. Cosmologists assert also that, even if only one living being would exist in the Universe, the multiplicity of stars and galaxies would still have to contribute with their complex, life-creating process and sustaining properties. The saying is that living beings are made of star stuff.
Physical sciences confirmed that the qualitative progress in the order of any particular physical system (that is also the basis of biology), is always ‘rolling’ from a higher energy order down to a lower energy order. They also claim that the most characteristic properties (i.e. the essence), of a human being represent the highest order of life form among living beings in nature.
Extrapolating from this, human beings could not have their explanation for their higher order of existence acquired from a lower order of plant and animal evolution. However, there are two schools of thought regarding the origin of species:-
The first theory maintains the ‘changelessness’ of species, and declares that one lower order of species does not develop into a higher order. Each species while diversify by varieties, clings to its essential type, which it retains permanently. They reason also that no living organism or a living being will ever display suicidal tendency to destroy itself for the sake of a future and an essentially superior living being that may eventually take its place.
Since that which is superior, can account for what is inferior, but not the other way around. At any rate, this theory advocates implicitly the irreversibility of the Law of Entropy.
The second theory declares that superior species evolved or ‘descended’ from inferior species. This theory is more generally, but less accurately known as the ‘evolution of species’, where the fittest survive. Although this theory is popular and accepted by modern science, but it is still remaining only a scientific hypothesis.
Order in Living Cells of plants, animals and humans that carries some intrinsic life principle of movement, is governed by its embedded DNA, which lends reason for it to be what it is destined to be; thus, a rose grows up to be a rose and not an oak, an eagle grows up to be an eagle and not a lizard. It appears therefore, that the perceived, intrinsic physical ‘aims’, which are governed by the laws and forces of nature, are believed as a logical consequence that themselves in fact ‘ordered’ to transcendental purposes.
A human body contains about 100 trillion cells; a human cell has genetic material contained in the cell nucleus. All chromosomal DNA is embedded in the cell nucleus. The biological information contained in an organism is encoded in its DNA sequence. RNA is used for information transfer.
There is nothing worthwhile science could say about the origin of life or about the origin and development of sexual reproduction, except that they were supposed to happen in the very early development of species, and possibly from a single source, be it on Earth or it came from elsewhere. They, however, can confirm that since even fungi reproduce sexually, so it appears that sexual reproduction must be very common in the physical world.
d) The Moral Order: The Christian principle about the ‘primacy’ of conscience is that it should not be interpreted without proper consideration of the relevant authorities.”We can choose to do what we do not want and want to do what we do not choose. This is the foundation of morality” (Scruton.) The norm of human act is law applied by conscience; and the basic law is the natural law, which Philosophy calls the ‘Eternal Law’, especially as this is knowable by sound human reason through our conscience.
This free and responsible human conduct is the quintessential basis of morality of the human acts. Therefore, we are the agents of our own destiny by the free and deliberate choices we make.
The norm of morality is applied by human reason to judge the objective right or wrong of an act or situation, and this reasoning process called conscience. Scruton explains the practicality of conscience as: ‘….Knowing how to apply wisdom in recognising and the mastery of the means; knowing thus, through an acquired moral competence of what is right and what is wrong and what to accept or reject’.
The basic Doctrine of the Church, (according to St. Thomas Aquinas), about sexual expression is based on Natural Law, which may be summed up in the following: ‘It is an eternal law (reason), whereby the sexual expression of a human being has by its nature an instinctive inclination to fulfill its proper intent and meaning. This conscious and voluntary act, through the similarly ‘self-administered’ marriage vows, and this participation of the Eternal Law in the rational being, is called the Natural Law’.
The teaching of the Church on sexual expression drawn from what it considers a natural law, the scriptures and sacred traditions. Hence, personal morality in thoughts and deeds are the gold-standard criteria of Christian moral behaviour. The Church asserts that the human sexual expression and human life are inseparable. Furthermore, the conjugal expression of mutual love is considered a sublime form of human act, which invites through that very act a new life. This act is considered the fulfillment of the most noble and worthy union within traditional societies.
e) The Social Order: We ought to ask the obvious question first, what is a social or civil society?
A society is a community of people living or acting voluntarily in a group or a state, within a largely same culture, customs and mores, guided by established rules and laws of rights and duties, for the maintenance and protection of safety and well being of private and public interests. These conditions apply primarily to legally institutionalise societies, such as the conjugal and family society and/or state.
A state is instituted for the benefit of its members and not for the other way around. Therefore, the state must legally uphold our rights in freedom to act. Freedom is necessary for the performance of human rights and duties. In other words, accountability for our actions, such as rights and duties, would be entirely meaningless, if without any freedom of will to choose the means, we would be pre-determined by force to act.
Aristotle, however, asserts an important, over-riding rule that is: ‘Bonum commune prevalet bono privato’; (Public good prevails private good)’; (Example: conscription for self-defense in a just war).
The Basis of Social Order: Aristotle insisted in his ‘Politics’, in acknowledging and including the family as a necessary institution and as the foundation-basis of a legitimate state, in which human beings normally live and act in an orderly way. The Social Ethics of philosophy states that the basis of social order is the maintenance of Rights and Duties, which rests ultimately on Natural Law, the norm of all human activity.
Aristotle comments further: “Law is a rule and measure of acts, whereby man is induced to act or is restrained from acting’. When law is ignored or disregarded, it results in the loss of authority, justice and peace, which end ultimately in a general disorder, which are the dominant forces of a disintegrating society.
A ‘right’ is a moral power, which is expected of others by and for the benefit of ourselves, our family, a legally unified number of people, and in special circumstances (such as in times of a just war), it is expected even by the state, for possessing, doing or exacting lawful, defensive acts.
A ‘duty’ is a correlative of right, which is the legal or moral obligation of a person or people, and certainly of the state, to do something legal for the safety and benefit of others or avoid doing harm to people or property. We have various duties, such as to family, our neighbour, society and ourselves.
5. THE NATURE OF DISORDER
a) Introduction: We return once again to the earlier mentioned physical order of the Universe that began with the Universe 13.75 billion years ago. Oddly enough, there are apparently learned people, who spend inordinate attention to and effort in explaining why it is that their reasoning mind cannot find any general reason in the reality.
On the other hand, apart from the already mentioned, slowly evolving, energy-based disorder, we find that there is in fact a universal order, maintained by the laws and forces of nature, which is observed by the various disciplines of science. However, there are still those, who do not find any order in the Universe.
These people may be either ignorant, or do not want to find reason and order, instead, they prefer to find chance, determinism or chaos in the mind as well as in the physical reality.
b) The Paradox of Disorder: Philosophy’s comments on the above contradictory views are: First, of chance, one could say: ‘To have chance, not everything can be chance’; and even chance event itself could not occur without the convergence of entities doing what they are supposed to be doing under the laws and forces of nature.
Second, regarding the above case, how could an adequate (reasoning) mind come up with a suspicious and self- contradictory idea that things are not determined while itself is determined? On the other hand, how can it be a confused mind is still reasonable enough to recognise and claim disorder around itself in the reality?
It is by now clear also, that in spite of the internal universal order, there is a slow transformation into an energy-based increasing physical disorder.
However, one can see an interesting paradox even in this energy-based physical ‘disorder‘. That is to say, while considering a universal disorder, we find at the same time embedded in the same nature a counter-acting, continued maintenance of biological life, which manifests a surprising ‘order’.
Admittedly, all living beings receive their energy required for the maintenance of life form the Sun, nevertheless, the primary reason for this counter-acting maintenance lies in the miraculous reproducing process. This process guarantees the ‘quality’ of human-specific progeny by natural selection, i.e. procreating causally through genetic variation by the governing laws (the message) written in the DNA of every living cell.
In other words, this observed ‘order‘ is in the evolutionary process of propagating biological life that is able to function against the so called inescapable laws and forces of nature, which are the principal agents of an increasing ‘disorder‘ in the same physical nature. One of those laws of nature is ‘The Law of Increasing Disorder’.
There has already been a lot written by biologists about the ‘order’ in the human evolutionary process, therefore, the understanding and appreciation of the law of increasing disorder may also justify some similar clarification.
c) The Law of Increasing Disorder: The scientific basis of this law of nature lies in the ‘Second Law of Thermodynamics’. This law is more subtle than the other laws that govern physical reality; and it is just as important, because it could influence and even limit the physical actions and capabilities of all living beings in the Universe.
In introduction, however, I must point out that, while this law, as well as the following Law of Entropy, describes how the Universe will end in an unforeseeable future, (and surprisingly, in an orderly way), these laws are built into the Universe by the Creator, for the eternal reason, that the Universe was never intended to exist forever. One has to recall only the degeneration of all physical, material beings in nature, as well as our biological, corruptible body.
It appears therefore odd when scientists produce with mock-surprise that they do not understand why there was in the beginning a universal ‘order‘, but it later on turned into ‘disorder‘ through the enigmatic Law of Entropy. Considering the previous paradox, this dilemma makes one wonder, whether the law of Entropy ought to be classified as the portent of ‘order’ or ‘disorder’ for the physical Universe.
Nevertheless, I will describe this law of ‘increasing disorder’ in brief for the interested reader in the following: This physical law posits that the quality of all radiating energies in the Universe is slowly degrading, and it proceeds necessarily in one direction, i.e., from a high energy level to a lower level.
It means that there is no possibility of ever ‘reversing’ its directional flow spontaneously; (e.g. heat ‘roles’ always downhill; or something that is cooled down will not spontaneously reverse itself by suddenly getting warm without any external input of new energy).
This law states also that the universal ‘disorder’ in nature tends to increase, (or at least remains the same), whenever any physical change proceeds. In other words, although the ‘quantity’ of ‘Total Energy’ in any ‘closed’ physical system must remain constant; the ‘quality’ of its energy may degrade through radiation, (or be converted through doing useful work), from its original high-quality state downward to a lower-quality state.
In principle, the essence of the Law of Increasing Disorder represents the popularised view of the same universal law, which the ‘Law of Entropy’ describes. This law spells out the same concept but more scientifically, i.e.: There is a gradual degradation in the value of all radiating energies of the Universe, from the highest value of order at its beginning (the Big Bang), throughout its quasi-endless life, down to its highest value of disorder, which is represented by a pure, low-frequency ‘vibration’ of the atoms at near absolute Zero temperature. (Note that atoms have no temperature).
This end-state, i.e., the so-called ‘heat-death’ of the Universe, will be characterised by the highest mathematical value of ‘disorder’ in physical nature, whose value is represented by scientists as the maximum ‘entropic value’. Surprisingly enough, the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation that can be seen after sunset, (as a uniform dark glow of the deep-sky), first, it is the remnant from the Big Bang, and second, it represents the future ‘end-state’ of the Universe; i.e. both phenomena demonstrate the lowest energy value of thermal radiation (vibration), at about 2.750 Kelvin, above absolute Zero temperature.
d) The Inestimable Law of Entropy: Scientists wondered for long how they could use thermal energy more efficiently than it was used originally in steam engines. Through analysing the law of entropy, scientists discovered first, the ‘forms’ of energy differ in proportion with their intrinsic energy ‘values’.
Second, the general entropic law that follows the direction of irreversibility, will also cause the downward flow of all radiating energies, (from a high-to-low), in accordance with their values. The equivalent, qualitative ‘values’ of the various ‘forms’ of energies, are shown in the following list:-
- a. Gravitational kinetic and potential energies
- b. Nuclear energy
- c. Electrical energy
- d. Chemical energy
- e. Thermal energy;…Finally: Mechanical energy of extreme low-frequency vibration.
Recapitulating the ‘entropic value’: It is a statistical measure of energy ‘disorder’, i.e. a mathematical number that indicates the quantity of ‘useful’ energy available for work in any closed physical system, at the time. Therefore, a low entropic value signifies that high quantity of high value energy is available for work.
Conversely, a high entropic value signifies that low quantity of high value energy is available for work. Since the ‘entropic value’ is irreversible, it can never increase; it can only decrease, or at the most, entropy may remain unchanged, (if there would be no spontaneous radiation loss, or when no useful work is being done).
However, this irreversibility of entropy highlights yet an other paradox: How could a high – quality energy state of the self-conscious, transcendental life come into existence, (i.e. having a low entropic value), ‘from’ a low-quality energy state of a pure physical matter, (i.e. having a high entropic value), against the ‘irreversibility’ principle of entropy?
I have described above, that energy can only degrade, i.e., ‘roll downhill’; (as if some cold object could suddenly turn into a hot object, without any energy input). Is this perhaps why the origin of life is remaining an enigma, and why we cannot look beyond the Big Bang of physical ‘beginning’ of the Universe to find its true ‘origin’?
In conclusion, one could say with certainty, that the Law of Entropy is the quintessential proof for the finite nature of the physical Universe. (It is no wonder, materialist cosmologists refuse to accept the concept of Entropy).
e) The effects of Moral Disorder: It is a historical fact that there is an observed, general degradation in the moral order worldwide; just as there is a helpful propagation of it by the media.
One can deduct from the constant stream of media reports that the Church has a big problem too. This situation is by no means exaggerated or isolated in history. The present events, however, are the confluence of external and internal causes, which may complicate it further. These appear the two major causes:-
The external causes were the worldwide, libertarian movement, which prevailed between the 1960s and 1990s. One could call these environmental causes, as they affected the Church from the outside; hence, not even the most ardent fanatics could blame the Church alone for those events. We could form some idea of those effects from the following information:-
The World Bank Bureau of Statistics reported about the above popular movement, in the year 2012, that 50% of Christians have lost their faith worldwide, over the past 63 year; this averaged out to 16.9 million/year. The divorce rate in EU is on the average one million/year. In Australia alone: the average number of divorce (among all denominations) is 43% per year; the No. of all registered marriages in 2012 was only 2.2 million; and again of all the childbirths in 2012 outside marriage was 38.3%.
It appears obvious from the above numbers, that the worldwide libertarian movement must have affected a great number of faithful as well, as observed through the diminishing church attendance.
The internal causes could be labelled as spiritually grave because it emanated from within the Church. Thus it did not only harm the faithful directly, but it also brought from the outside adversaries the greatest harm and shame to the age-old good name of the Church. The primary cause was of course once again the external influence of the secular world, whose moral pollution affected a great section of the clergy (but mostly the ordained brothers) and lay employees.
The primary intention of this article was to demonstrate through the various Natural Laws and Forces, that first, there can be no order of any kind without those laws and forces; second, science not only that it does not threaten our faith in a Creator, but science also shows eminently the universal order of creation. This universal order permeates through the sub-atomic particles, the biological existence of all animate beings all the way up to the human beings, including the transcendental order of the human mind, that is capable of recognising the order around it.
My hope is that the reader will end up understanding this compatibility of science with faith, because science reveals us eminently the universal order through the Natural Laws and Forces of divine creation.
“Charity is certainly greater than any rule. Moreover, all rules must lead to charity.” (St. Vincent de Paul).