Introduction to Philosophy of Nature
Dear reader, welcome to the Philosophy of Nature.
It is a peculiarity of us humans that, although we are an integral part physically and biologically of a continually changing physical world, at the same time, our minds are capable of reflecting on such transcendental things as the origin of material things and of life itself, the physical nature of reality, the purpose and finality of everything; etc. In my view it is in this context that ultimate answers may arise in the minds of interested readers.
These articles are intended for those readers, first, who are searching for some facts in the physical reality to reinforce their transcendental ideas in a certain belief, and second, who either have never heard of such philosophical and/or cosmological ideas before, or merely wish to confirm some of their existing ideas based in modern philosophies and physical cosmologies.
Transcendental ideas arise primarily from the source of our unique humanness that is the intellect. The human intellect, through its faculties of reasoning and free will of making choices, can elicit motivating ideas, to satisfy our innate yearning for apprehending the reason why, through philosophy; and in the paraphrased words of Fr. Nemeshegyi, S.J., to search for our identity and purpose through religion; to explore beauty with the aid of arts; to strive for goodness in dealing with others via ethics; and to search for knowledge with the evidence of science.
The format of most articles on this Website is presented through highlighting the little known but surprisingly close inter-dependence of philosophy with physical cosmology, and comparing some of their underlying first principles with the respective inter-related ideas and concepts. Such comparisons would expect to reveal the true intent and meaning of contentious principal ideas, and thus, it could provide the reader hopefully with some clear and useful information.
The juxtaposed method of these two disciplines would be hard to come by nowadays among the general publications of either philosophy or physical cosmology, partly because of their apparently hostile isolation from one another, and partly due to lack of professional interest in such a problematic presentation.
Introduction continues after the following quick links to the various articles.
The philosophical ideas for these articles were mainly taken from the systematic, classical works of Aristotle, the ‘Philosopher’, who was born at Stagira, Greece, 384 BC., and died in Euboea, 322 BC. Aristotle was a pupil of Plato, tutor to Alexander the Great, and later on teacher at the Lyceum of Apollo, Athens. The choice of this philosophy for analysing cosmological ideas was made because of the superior value of the Aristotelian Philosophy.
‘It was the first in human history setting out the importance of definition of ideas, the proper use of ideas and terms, judgment and propositions, reasoning and argument, in his Logic or Dialectics, (meaning: Testing of truth by discussion), whereby he laid the historical foundation of scientific language’. (J.P. Glenn).
The greatness of Aristotle’s Greco-Scholastic philosophy lies in the fact that it is the only, near-complete and consistent system that can be found in continuous existence throughout the 2,400 years of recorded history of “philosophic effort of thought”. It is therefore considered the perennial, true philosophy, and as such the acme of human achievement.
Although this philosophy is considered perennial, it was not always easily available to the general public, as it was overshadowed by modern adversarial ideologies mainly in the last century and even up until recent times. It is not known in general that most of the major adversarial ideologies that deal with similar philosophical ideas today, were borrowed mainly from the Aristotelian philosophy, with major modifications throughout the centuries, although they still bear some resemblance to their original source.
The cosmological ideas for these articles were mainly taken from the Modern Cosmological Model and the recent publications by eminent authors and experts in their respective cosmological fields. Some of these major cosmological ideas were compared with the corresponding fundamental principles, that are primarily set out in the Critical Question of the Aristotelian philosophy, and by eminent philosophers of science.
It is widely known that the so called ‘elegant’ hypothetical theorising of some recent cosmological articles tend to resolve problems, as ‘firm and final’, because as they reason, the concepts were logical and what is more, they were proved mathematically correct; They, however, overlook the fact that not everything that may be logical, nor even if something proven mathematically correct, does necessarily equate with truth in the physical reality.
Furthermore, some modern day scientists often rely on pure assumptions, which they tend to prove with further assumptions. However, their favourite, intellectual slight of hand is reserved for the frequent use of hypothetical ‘material’ infinities of energy and matter, the physical space and time, and often for the whole physical Universe. These ‘infinities’ are often used for filling in the gaps in their reasoning process, but, without considering their physical and philosophical implications. At the same time, a concerned reader may find that definitions for such novel ideas are conspicuously absent. Consequently, this kind of hypothetical theorising ends often in ambiguities and confusion.
The articles of this website are not intended to be scientific in their format or content, nor do they offer personal opinions of the author, but simply describe known physical entities and events, juxtaposed with classic philosophical ideas and terms, whose respective true and real meanings are unambiguouslydefined.
The primary intention of this Website is an attempt to clear up some of the misunderstandings caused by pseudo-scientific publications of the enthusiastic media, which intend to mislead the searching minds of the youth in particular. Therefore, these articles are set out in a systematic order to arrive infour discrete stages at the following principal resolutions:-
- From the Physical Reality we arrive at the concept of a Created Universe.
- From a Created Universe, we arrive at its ‘Unmoved Mover’, whose reality-based knowledge may reinforce an existing Faith.
- From the concept of a reinforced Faith we arrive at an Objective Religion.
- Finally, from an Objective Religion we arrive at its reality-based verifiable, transcendental Authority.
First, the introductory articles of this Website will demonstrate the inexplicable, physical origin and the grandeur of Physical Reality of our world, and through its metaphysical implications, we would arrive at the unique, logical realisation of a Created Universe.
Second, an attempt will be made to demonstrate in the last few articles, that the understanding and a free acceptance of the logical realisation of a Created Universe, would inevitably lead us to an ‘Unmoved Mover‘ (Aristotle’s words). This could also satisfy the general ‘requirement’, (as a quasi-condition, set out by some adversaries, like Dr R. Dawkins), that is: ‘An Objective Religion ought to have the basis for its existence verifiable in the Physical Reality’.
The example for this reinforcing idea as detailed further in the articles, will be based on the physical‘beginning‘ of the Universe (that is as yet without any scientifically evident cause), at the moment of the Big Bang, 13.75 billion years ago, juxtaposed with the ‘origin’ of the same Universe through metaphysical creation (as the only logical alternative to the beginning, human reasoning could provide). This factual, knowledge-based understanding would reinforce our faith in a metaphysicalCreator.
This same factual belief in a Creator was highlighted by the late Karl Rahner, S.J., former Dean of Philosophy and Theology Faculty of Innsbruck State University, Austria, who often referred to the ‘Natural knowledge of a Creator that is available to anyone, even without prior religious revelation, through pure reasoning, i.e., whoever may be searching earnestly in the Created Universe for a metaphysical Absolute’.
Third, an objectively verified Faith that is based in the physical reality, would lead us to a correspondingly Objective Religion.
Fourth, from the concept of an objective religion, we will arrive at its reality-based verifiable transcendental Authority. (Otherwise, any type of so called religious faith and/or any of its practical manifestations could only be described as being at best an elaborate humanism, or as per Dr. R. Dawkins’ oft-remark, a deception and self-delusion). Although this strict, reality-based requirement, which is the basis of the verification process of science, was made on the erroneous assumption that religion is based on the same verification process as science that is the physical reality. However, it will be demonstrated that the transcendental Authority of an Objective Religion could also have its basisverified in the physical reality.
Finally, it will become hopefully evident to the reader, generally through the first principles ofPhilosophy, and as described by physical sciences in particular, that the immensity of our physical Universe could lead an adequate, reasoning mind to the acceptance of a belief in a transcendental Creator, which knowledge could ultimately reinforce an existing faith.
The results of this basic reasoning could also somewhat enlighten us about the perennial views of where we have come from, why we are here and where we are going. The following words express the admiration for our divine Creator: ‘Lord God, heavenly King, almighty God and Father,we worship you, we give you thanks,we praise you for your glory…’